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The Bible has been the most influential text in all of Western culture. It's difficult to understand medieval or early modern or much of modern literature without knowing it...

Prof. Barbara Newman, Northwestern University
from 2006 Bible Literary project


It's not that it's impossible to read some writers without a Biblical background, but that you would miss a whole dimension to their work.

Prof. Steven Goldsmith, University of California at Berkeley
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


I can only say that if a student doesn't know any Bible literature, he or she will simply not understand whole elements of Shakespeare, Sidney, Spenser, Milton, Pope, Wordsworth

Prof. Robert Kiely, Harvard University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...there is truth in the remark. "without Tyndale[Bible translator], no Shakespeare"...

Prof. David Daniell, University College London
from The Bible in English


You can't really study Western literature intelligently or coherently without starting with the Bible.

Prof. Gerald L. Bruns, University of Notre Dame
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...a familiar understanding of Christian doctrine in historical perspective thus contributes to a fuller appreciation of Shakespeare's art, but Shakespeare's art

Prof. Roland M. Frye
from Shakespeare and the Christian Doctrine


In English tradition and also for an American tradition begun by Puritan writers, a knowledge of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament is even more crucial than classical references.

Prof. Ulrich Knoefplmacher, Princeton University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


There is no book more important for our culture than the Bible, and it is fundametal to the study of English literature and language.

Prof. David Jasper and Prof. Stephen Prickett
from the Bible and literature

Ashes to ashes, dust to dust الرماد إلى رماد، التراب إلى التراب (تكوين 2: 7، 3:19)

Picture description: Cemetery in Manila, Philippines
Picture copyright: V. Gilbert and Arlisle F. Beers

Bible Verse

بعرق وجهك تأكل خبزاً حتى تعود الى الارض التي أُخذت منها. لأنك تراب والى “التراب تعود.”. (تكوين 3 :19)


Origin and Application

في مرحلة الدفن من أول الكتاب الإنجليزي للصلاة المشتركة في 1548 هذا العنوان: “الأرض إلى الأرض والرماد إلى رماد والتراب الى التراب”. هذه العبارة لا تأتي مباشرة من الكتاب المقدس، على الرغم من أنها مشتقة منه. في الجنازات التي يمارس فيها الدفن، تدفن الجثث في الأرض لأن هذا هو المكان الذي نأتي منه وفقا للكتاب المقدس. خلق الله آدم من التراب. عندما آكل آدم وحواء الفاكهة من شجرة معرفة الخير والشر الذي نهى الله عنها، الله نفاهم من جنة عدن. ومنذ ذلك الحين، لم يعد بإمكان الناس التمتع بالفواكه المجانية في الحديقة ولكنهم بحاجة الآن للعمل بجد بحثا عن الطعام. هذا هو ما قاله الله لآدم، “بعرق وجهك تأكل خبزاً حتى تعود الى الارض التي أُخذت منها. لأنك تراب والى التراب تعود.”. (تكوين 3: 19)



ash    cemetery    death    dust   

Related Information

NIV official site
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