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The Bible has been the most influential text in all of Western culture. It's difficult to understand medieval or early modern or much of modern literature without knowing it...

Prof. Barbara Newman, Northwestern University
from 2006 Bible Literary project


It's not that it's impossible to read some writers without a Biblical background, but that you would miss a whole dimension to their work.

Prof. Steven Goldsmith, University of California at Berkeley
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


I can only say that if a student doesn't know any Bible literature, he or she will simply not understand whole elements of Shakespeare, Sidney, Spenser, Milton, Pope, Wordsworth

Prof. Robert Kiely, Harvard University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...there is truth in the remark. "without Tyndale[Bible translator], no Shakespeare"...

Prof. David Daniell, University College London
from The Bible in English


You can't really study Western literature intelligently or coherently without starting with the Bible.

Prof. Gerald L. Bruns, University of Notre Dame
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...a familiar understanding of Christian doctrine in historical perspective thus contributes to a fuller appreciation of Shakespeare's art, but Shakespeare's art

Prof. Roland M. Frye
from Shakespeare and the Christian Doctrine


In English tradition and also for an American tradition begun by Puritan writers, a knowledge of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament is even more crucial than classical references.

Prof. Ulrich Knoefplmacher, Princeton University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


There is no book more important for our culture than the Bible, and it is fundametal to the study of English literature and language.

Prof. David Jasper and Prof. Stephen Prickett
from the Bible and literature

Adam’s Apple تفاحة آدم (التكوين 3: 6)

Picture description: Apple
Picture copyright: Public

Bible Verse

“فرأت المرأة ان الشجرة جيدة للاكل, وأنها بهجة للعيون, وأن الشجرة شهية للنظر. فأخذت من ثمرها وأكلت, وأعطت رجلها أيضاً معها فأكل.”


تشير تفاحة آدم إلى صندوق الصوت الذي يلتصق تحت جلد الحلق. تقول الأسطورة أن حلق آدم كان عالقا بعد القضمة الأولى من الفاكهة المحرمة.

Origin and Application

غالبا ما ترتبط التفاحة مع الفاكهة المحرمة في قصة الخلق، على الرغم ان في الكتاب المقدس الفاكهة لم تكن على وجه التحديد تفاحة. وقد وصفت الفاكهة المحرمة بأنها تفاحة في الكثير من اللوحات والأعمال الأدبية منذ أواخر العصور الوسطى. في الجنة المفقودة، يكتب جون ميلتون، “الخير والشر الذي نعرفه في مجال هذا العالم يكبرون معا تقريبا بدون انفصال … وكان من خارج قشرة تفاحة واحدة تم تذوقها، أن معرفة الخير والشر، كاثنين من التوائم منشقون عن بعضهم ، قد قفزوا إلى العالم “. ولكن وفقا للكتاب المقدس، لم يتم تحديد نوع الفاكهة.



Adam    apple    man    throat   

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