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The Bible has been the most influential text in all of Western culture. It's difficult to understand medieval or early modern or much of modern literature without knowing it...

Prof. Barbara Newman, Northwestern University
from 2006 Bible Literary project


It's not that it's impossible to read some writers without a Biblical background, but that you would miss a whole dimension to their work.

Prof. Steven Goldsmith, University of California at Berkeley
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


I can only say that if a student doesn't know any Bible literature, he or she will simply not understand whole elements of Shakespeare, Sidney, Spenser, Milton, Pope, Wordsworth

Prof. Robert Kiely, Harvard University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...there is truth in the remark. "without Tyndale[Bible translator], no Shakespeare"...

Prof. David Daniell, University College London
from The Bible in English


You can't really study Western literature intelligently or coherently without starting with the Bible.

Prof. Gerald L. Bruns, University of Notre Dame
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...a familiar understanding of Christian doctrine in historical perspective thus contributes to a fuller appreciation of Shakespeare's art, but Shakespeare's art

Prof. Roland M. Frye
from Shakespeare and the Christian Doctrine


In English tradition and also for an American tradition begun by Puritan writers, a knowledge of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament is even more crucial than classical references.

Prof. Ulrich Knoefplmacher, Princeton University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


There is no book more important for our culture than the Bible, and it is fundametal to the study of English literature and language.

Prof. David Jasper and Prof. Stephen Prickett
from the Bible and literature

An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth عين بعين، وسن بسن (الخروج 21: 24-25، متى 5: 38)

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Bible Verse

سمعتم انه قيل: “عين بعين، وسن بسن”. وأما انا فأقول لكم: لا تقاوموا “الشر, بل من لطمك على خدك الايمن فحَّول له الآخر أيضاً.”(متى 5: 38)


Origin and Application

المعنى الحرفي واضح على السطح، أن الشخص يجب أن يعاقب تماما مثل الجريمة التي ارتكبها. إذا أخذ أحد حياة شخص آخر، يجب أن يعاقب القاتل بأ يتخلى عن حياته. وقد أدخلت هذه العقوبة لأول مرة في سفر الخروج في العهد القديم. الله وضع القوانين وكشف لموسى النبي “وان حصلت اذية تُعطي نفساً بنفس، وعيناً بعين وسناً بسن ويداً بيد ورجلاً برجل, وكيَّاً بكيّ, وجرحاً بجرح, ورضاً برض”.



enemy    evil    eye    love    revenge    tooth   

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Common names such as Joseph and Rachel have their origins in the Bible. Want to know their stories before picking the right name for yourself? Click here to find out.