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The Bible has been the most influential text in all of Western culture. It's difficult to understand medieval or early modern or much of modern literature without knowing it...

Prof. Barbara Newman, Northwestern University
from 2006 Bible Literary project


It's not that it's impossible to read some writers without a Biblical background, but that you would miss a whole dimension to their work.

Prof. Steven Goldsmith, University of California at Berkeley
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


I can only say that if a student doesn't know any Bible literature, he or she will simply not understand whole elements of Shakespeare, Sidney, Spenser, Milton, Pope, Wordsworth

Prof. Robert Kiely, Harvard University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...there is truth in the remark. "without Tyndale[Bible translator], no Shakespeare"...

Prof. David Daniell, University College London
from The Bible in English


You can't really study Western literature intelligently or coherently without starting with the Bible.

Prof. Gerald L. Bruns, University of Notre Dame
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


...a familiar understanding of Christian doctrine in historical perspective thus contributes to a fuller appreciation of Shakespeare's art, but Shakespeare's art

Prof. Roland M. Frye
from Shakespeare and the Christian Doctrine


In English tradition and also for an American tradition begun by Puritan writers, a knowledge of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament is even more crucial than classical references.

Prof. Ulrich Knoefplmacher, Princeton University
from 2006 Bible Literary Project


There is no book more important for our culture than the Bible, and it is fundametal to the study of English literature and language.

Prof. David Jasper and Prof. Stephen Prickett
from the Bible and literature

Manna from heaven (Exodus 16:14)

Picture description: Manna
Picture copyright: V.

bible verse


Manna from heaven is an unexpected but very needed gift.

origin and application

Moses was the prophet chosen by God to lead the people of Israel out of Egypt. Two months after the Israelites left Egypt, they began grumbling against Moses and Aaron who brought them out of Egypt because they had no food in the desert. God had compassion on the Israelites, and rained down bread like morning dew from heaven for them. When the Israelites saw the land was covered by thin flakes, they asked, “What is it?” The bread looked like coriander seed and tasted like wafers made with honey. People called the bread manna, meaning “What is it?” in Hebrew.
Manna from the heaven become the daily food for the supplies of Israelites during the wilderness years. Today, it means a very much needed, unexpected and timely gift that helps a situation.



bread    gift    manna    supplies    unexpected    wilderness   

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